Cannabinoid receptors exist in many tissues, not just those fun neurological areas we all think about. The kidney contains type 2 receptors (CB2), and experimental data suggests they might play a role in acute kidney injury. With unilateral ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) CB2 receptors are dramatically upregulated after 72 hours, returning to baseline after 168 hours (7 days).
Could activating these receptors help the kidney heal itself?
Pressly et al used a novel CB2 agonist (SMM-295) in bilateral IRI, administering it just after ischemia and every 24 hours after. Kidney function and structure were examined 24 and 48 hours after injury.
Animals treated with SMM-295 did not have elevated creatinines after IRI. NGAL, a marker of tubular damage, also remained lower with treatment. Tissue analysis showed decreased staining for PCNA and TUNEL, demonstrating reduced apoptosis. Tubular damage and casts were reduced by 50% with CB2 agonist treatment.
Acute kidney injury is a major problem in hospitalized patients, especially those undergoing cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass. Any agent that shows this much promise deserves further study, even if it won't give you the munchies!
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